Epinephelus spilotoceps

Foursaddle Grouper | Spotty Cod
Epinephelus spilotoceps
Epinephelus spilotoceps, Ashmore Reef, Coral Sea, Photo: Graham Edgar
Epinephelus spilotoceps
Epinephelus spilotoceps, Seychelles, Photo: Rick Stuart-Smith
Epinephelus spilotoceps
Epinephelus spilotoceps, adult, Ashmore Reef, WA, Photo: Ian Shaw
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Epinephelus spilotoceps
Epinephelus spilotoceps
Epinephelus spilotoceps


Tropical Indo-Pacific


Honeycomb pattern of brown polygonal markings with black spots clustering into four patches on back and above tail base, spots diminishing in size on snout. Similar E. bilobatus (Frostback Rockcod) has larger polygonal markings. Length to 35 cm.


Max Size: 35 cm

Sea Temperature Range: 24.2-30.7°C

Depth: 1-30 m

Habitat Generalization Index: 0.81

Also referred to as the SGI (Species Generalisation Index), this describes the habitat niche breadth of the species. Species with values less than 15 are found in a relatively narrow range of reef habitat types (specialists), while those over 25 may be found on most hard substrates within their range (generalists). Learn more here.

Conservation and Rarity

IUCN Status: Least Concern

Occurrence: Infrequent (4.2% of sites)

Occurrence describes how often the species is found on surveys within its distribution. It is calculated as the % of reef sites surveyed by RLS divers across all the ecoregions in which the species has been observed

Abundance: Solitary (1 per transect)

Abundance is calculated as the average number of individuals recorded per RLS transect, where present.