Epinephelus marginatus

Dusky grouper | Yellowbelly Rockcod
Epinephelus marginatus
Epinephelus marginatus, Canary Islands, Spain, Photo: Natali Lazzari
Epinephelus marginatus
Epinephelus marginatus, Canary Islands, Spain, Photo: Graham Edgar
Epinephelus marginatus
Epinephelus marginatus, juvenile, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, Photo: Graham Edgar
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Epinephelus marginatus
Epinephelus marginatus
Epinephelus marginatus


Mediterranean, Temperate Africa, Temperate South America, Temperate northern Atlantic


Olive to dark grey, sometimes becoming pale on lower body, breast yellowish, irregular pale blotches on head and body, usually arranged in vertical series, broad, black outer margins on fins, and a yellow stripe along the top of the spiny dorsal fin. Solitary and territorial.


Max Size: 150 cm

Sea Temperature Range: 12.5-29.1°C

Depth: 8-300m

Habitat Generalization Index: N/A

Also referred to as the SGI (Species Generalisation Index), this describes the habitat niche breadth of the species. Species with values less than 15 are found in a relatively narrow range of reef habitat types (specialists), while those over 25 may be found on most hard substrates within their range (generalists). Learn more here.

Conservation and Rarity

IUCN Status: Endangered

Occurrence: Common (33.4% of sites)

Occurrence describes how often the species is found on surveys within its distribution. It is calculated as the % of reef sites surveyed by RLS divers across all the ecoregions in which the species has been observed

Abundance: Few (2 per transect)

Abundance is calculated as the average number of individuals recorded per RLS transect, where present.

Edit by: Joe Shields