Pastinachus sephen

Cowtail stingray
Pastinachus sephen
Pastinachus sephen


Temperate Africa, Temperate Australasia, Tropical Indo-Pacific


A large, plain, dark stingray with a distinct fold of skin on the underside of the tail which doesn't reach the tip. A common, widely distributed, Indo-Pacific species which may by a complex of many species. In Australia it is now refered to as P. atrus.


Max Size: 183 cm

Sea Temperature Range: 19.3-32.9°C

Depth: 0-60m

Habitat Generalization Index: N/A

Also referred to as the SGI (Species Generalisation Index), this describes the habitat niche breadth of the species. Species with values less than 15 are found in a relatively narrow range of reef habitat types (specialists), while those over 25 may be found on most hard substrates within their range (generalists). Learn more here.

Conservation and Rarity

IUCN Status: Data Deficient

Occurrence: Widespread (100% of sites)

Occurrence describes how often the species is found on surveys within its distribution. It is calculated as the % of reef sites surveyed by RLS divers across all the ecoregions in which the species has been observed

Abundance: Solitary (1 per transect)

Abundance is calculated as the average number of individuals recorded per RLS transect, where present.

Edit by: Joe Shields