Lithognathus mormyrus

Sand steenbras | Striped Seabream
Lithognathus mormyrus
Lithognathus mormyrus, Photo: Jose A. Sanabria-Fernandez
Lithognathus mormyrus
Lithognathus mormyrus, Storms River Mouth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, Photo: Graham Edgar
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Lithognathus mormyrus
Lithognathus mormyrus


Mediterranean, Temperate Africa, Tropical Atlantic/Caribbean, Tropical Indo-Pacific


Silver with numerous dark bands on back fading onto belly, which can be more or less distinct. Mouth mildly protusible. Occasionally forms large schools.


Max Size: 55 cm

Sea Temperature Range: 12.6-28.8°C

Depth: 0-150m

Habitat Generalization Index: N/A

Also referred to as the SGI (Species Generalisation Index), this describes the habitat niche breadth of the species. Species with values less than 15 are found in a relatively narrow range of reef habitat types (specialists), while those over 25 may be found on most hard substrates within their range (generalists). Learn more here.

Conservation and Rarity

IUCN Status: Not Evaluated

Occurrence: Infrequent (4.2% of sites)

Occurrence describes how often the species is found on surveys within its distribution. It is calculated as the % of reef sites surveyed by RLS divers across all the ecoregions in which the species has been observed

Abundance: Many (24 per transect)

Abundance is calculated as the average number of individuals recorded per RLS transect, where present.

Edit by: Joe Shields